北京赛车开奖视频高频彩_园艺学院“111”引智基地学术专家报告

联系人:张飞联系方式:84396502发布时间:2019-11-22

题目:Revisiting the role of structural variants in plant adaptation, speciation, and improvement

报告人:Loren H. Rieseberg

工作单位:加拿大英属哥伦比亚大学

时间:20191127日上午9:00-10:30

地点:生科楼B4011


附:报告人简介和报告摘要

报告人简介:Loren H. Rieseberg1987年获得华盛顿州立大学植物学系博士学位,现任加拿大英属哥伦比亚大学(UBCKillam教授、生物多样性研究中心主任、加拿大植物进化基因组学研究主席,为国际植物进化生物学领域顶级科学家;曾任职于美国吉林快三app苹果版—主页-彩经_彩喜欢加州Rancho Santa Ana植物园(1987 ~ 1993)和印第安纳大学(1993 ~ 2006)。Rieseberg北京赛车开奖视频高频彩实验室主要利用进化基因组学和田间(温室)试验统计方法研究菊科向日葵属植物的物种起源和进化机制、野生资源的遗传多样性和杂草入侵机制,为农作物遗传改良提供指导。Rieseberg教授在ScienceNatureNature PlantsNature CommunicationsMolecular Biology and EvolutionScience Advances、PNASPlant Cell等国际主流期刊发表学术论文300余篇,Web of Science他引次数>24 000次,h-index84,被Clarivate Analytics评为高被引科学家;其凭借在进化生物学领域的杰出贡献,多次获MacArthur and Guggenheim Fellowshipsthe David Starr Jordan Prize the Darwin-Wallace Medal等荣誉。目前,Rieseberg教授为英国(伦敦)和加拿大皇家学会、美国和挪威科学与艺术学院院士(elected fellow),曾任美国遗传学会(2006)和植物学会主席(2017 ~ 2018);1999年至今,担任Molecular Ecology主编。2017年受聘园艺学院“111”引智基地外籍学术大师。其他信息详见Rieseberg教授实验室网站:http://rieseberglab.botany.ubc.ca/

  

报告摘要:In plant species, structural variants affect more base pairs than do single nucleotide polymorphisms and typically have outsized effects when included in GWAS analyses. However, only recently have we had the genomic tools needed to fully explore the impact of structural changes in wild and domesticated species. Here I will first discuss the role of large structural variants (e.g., chromosomal inversions) as recombination modifiers. By suppressing recombination between genes underlying local adaptation and reproductive isolation, such structural changes resolve the antagonism between natural selection and recombination, thereby permitting divergence with gene flow. As an example, we recently discovered 34 large segregating inversions in hybridizing sunflowers that co-vary with distinctive ecotypes and are associated with ecologically relevant developmental, physiological, and climate variation. This proliferation of inversions solves a longstanding mystery of how sunflowers diversified in the face of rampant gene exchange. Following my discussion of the role of inversions in the diversification of natural populations, I will shift my focus to the origin and impacts of structural variants during crop improvement. Structural variants hamper plant and animal breeding because they impede recombination and introgression and can be the cause of hybrid inviability or sterility.Focusing on the cultivated sunflower gene pool, I will show that structural variants are over-represented in introgressions from wild species that were introduced by breeding programs. In many cases, genes are missing in the introgressions, which I suspect may be a frequent cause of linkage drag. Such missing genes and other structural variants can be complemented in hybrid crops, which offers a potential means for exploiting wild relative alleles for improvement without sacrificing productivity.

  

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